fredag den 11. januar 2008

Notes from Buloogh al maraam 6

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Regarding blind following (imitation) in the religion, Umm `Abdillah, may Allah
preserve her, said: Allah the most high says:
وَيَوْمَ يَعَضُّ الظَّالِمُ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ يَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي اتَّخَذْتُ مَعَ الرَّسُولِ سَبِيلًا
And (remember) the Day when the Zâlim (wrong-doer, oppressor, polytheist, etc.) will
bite at his hands, he will say: "Oh! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger
(Muhammad ). (Al-Furqan 25:27)
إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُواْ مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُواْ وَرَأَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الأَسْبَابُ
When those who were followed, disown (declare themselves innocent of) those who
followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from
them. (Al-Baqarah 2:166)
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ آَفَرُوا لَن نُّؤْمِنَ بِهَذَا الْقُرْآنِ وَلَا بِالَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذِ الظَّالِمُو ن
مَوْقُوفُونَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يَرْجِعُ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ الْقَوْلَ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا لِلَّذِي ن
اسْتَكْبَرُوا لَوْلَا أَنتُمْ لَكُنَّا مُؤْمِنِينَ
And those who disbelieve say: "We believe not in this Qur'ân nor in that which was
before it," but if you could see when the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrongdoers, etc.)
will be made to stand before their Lord, how they will cast the (blaming) word one to
another! Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant: "Had it
not been for you, we should certainly have been believers!" (Saba' 34:31)
From the Sunnah is the hadeeth of the two angels questioning the hypocrite in the
grave. It will be said to him ‘Who is your Lord?’ He replies, “Haah, haah, I don’t know”.
This is from the hadeeth of Anas, and the hadeeth of Baraa’ is similar.
al-Baraa‘ informed me saying: We went out with the Messenger of Allaah in the
Funeral Prayer for a man from the Ansaar (helpers). So we stopped at the grave, and
the niche at the side of it had not been dug out yet. So the Messenger of Allaah raised
his head to the sky, and then he looked down to the ground and conversed to himself.
He said: Then he said: “Seek refuge with Allaah from the Punishment of the Grave,” a
few times. Then he said: “Verily when the Muslim man has yet to reach the Hereafter,
but he has already been cut off from this world, Angels from the sky descend upon him
having faces like the sun. So they sit as far as him as the eye can see, with them are the
burial shrouds from the burial shrouds of Paradise, and embalming perfume from the
embalming perfumes of Paradise. So then the Angel of Death comes and sits at his
head, so he says: “Come out, O good soul to the forgiveness of Allaah and His
pleasure.” He said: “So it flows out as a drop flows out [from] a water-skin. So when
he takes it, he does not leave it in his hand for the blinking of an eye.” He said: “And
there comes out from him a smell like the best musk to be found upon the face of the
earth. So they ascend with him, and they do not pass by any of the angels except that
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he says: Who is this good soul? So they say: This is so and so. So the doors of heavens
are open for him, and they follow him through every level of heaven, until they reach
the end of the seventh heaven. It is then said: “Write his book in highness (’illiyyeen).”
He said: So it is written. He said: Then it is said: “Return to the earth, because it is
from there that We created you. and it is to there that we return you, and it is from
there that We raise you up again.” So it is returned to his body, then the Angels come to
him, then they say to him: Sit. Who is your Lord? So he says: My Lord is Allaah. He
said: They say: What is your Religion? He said: He says: My Religion is Islaam. So
they say: Who is this man who was sent amongst you? He says: He is the Messenger of
Allaah . So they say: How did you come to know of him? So he says: I read the Book
of Allaah, and I believed in it, and I attested to it. So it will be called out from the
heavens: “Indeed he has spoken the truth, so make space for him in Paradise, and
clothe him with the clothes of Paradise, and show him his place in Paradise.” He said:
So he will be allowed to see it and his grave will be made spacious for him as far as the
eye can see. A man with beautiful clothes, a handsome face, and a good smell will be
presented to him; he will say: “Receive the glad tidings that will please you upon this
day that you were promised. So [he] will say: May Allaah have mercy upon you, who
are you; because your face seems to represent goodness? He said: So he says: I am
your righteous deeds.”
He said: “However, if he was a disbeliever, Angels with black faces will descend upon
him, and with them are coarse woolen cloths. So they sit as far from him as the eye can
see.” He said: “And the Angel of death comes and sits at his head, so he says: Come out
O foul soul to the Anger of Allaah and His displeasure. He said: So he does not like to
be taken out of his body. He said: So he takes it out, he does not leave it in his hand for
the blinking of an eye. So the Angels take it in the burial shrouds of coarse woolen
cloth. He said: And there emanates from him the most offensive smelling stench like
the foulest smelling corpse upon the face of the earth. So they ascend with him, so they
do not pass by any one of the Angels, except that he says: Who is this foul soul? He
says: “So and so,” using the most evil of names. So when they reach the heaven, they
open the door, but it closes upon him, and it is called out: “Return to the earth, since I
created you from it, and to it I return you, and from it I shall raise you again.” So he is
placed back in his body, so the Angels come to him and they say: Sit. So they say: Who
is your Lord? He said: He says: Haah, [haah], I do not know. So they say: What is
your Religion? So he says: Haah, haah, I do not know. I heard the people speaking. He
said: So they say: Who is this man who was sent amongst you? He said: So it is called
out from the sky: “Verily he has lied, so make space for him in the Fire, and clothe him
with the clothes of the Fire. And he will be shown his place in the Fire. He said: So he
will see his place in the Fire, and he will be overtaken by its heat and its scorching air,
and his grave will be constricted for him, until his ribs start to interlace. And then
there will be represented a man with an ugly face, repulsive clothes, and a repugnant
smell, so he will say: ‘Woe to you, who are you? So by Allaah your face seems to
resemble evil.’ So he will say: O lord, do not establish the Hour! [O Lord,] do not
establish the Hour!” [An-Nisaa‘ee (4/78), Aboo Daawood (no. 3196), Ibn Maajah (no.
1548-1549), and Ahmad (4/297)]
The People of Knowledge have used the above hadeeth as a proof to show the awfulness
of Taqleed (blind following/imitation) in the deen of Allah.
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There is a difference between taqleed and accepting khabar
(information/reports/stories) of a trustworthy person. He who does not know the
difference accuses the other of taqleed.
Accepting the statement of the one who is not Hujjah (proof) is different from accepting
a fatwa of a person who states and backs himself with proof. Accepting the fatwa that is
supported by proof is not Taqleed. And what (the statements) we take from our Imaams
of Jarh wat-Taâ'deel which they base on proof such as (their statement) so and so is an
innovator because he did such and such; and likewise their statement so and so is
deviant because he said/did such and such, is not Taqleed.
Allah the most high says,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءآُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَأٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَن تُصِيبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَى
مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ
O you who believe! If a rebellious evil person comes to you with news, verify it, lest you
harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful to what you have
done. (Al-Hujurat 49:6)
The understanding of the verse indicates that if a statement of a trustworthy person
reaches us we accept it.
Some of the People of Knowledge say it is permissible for a layperson to blind follow
(imitate); however, does the statement of our Lord include they layperson and other
then him?
اتَّبِعُواْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُواْ مِن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاء قَلِيلاً مَّا تَذَآَّرُونَ
[Say (O Muhammad ) to these idolaters (pagan Arabs) of your folk:] Follow what
has been sent down unto you from your Lord (the Qur'ân and Prophet Muhammad's
Sunnah), and follow not any Auliyâ' (protectors and helpers, etc. who order you to
associate partners in worship with Allâh), besides Him (Allâh). Little do you
remember! (Al-A'raf 7:3)
Hadeeth #138
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar : The Prophet said, “The twilight is the redness.” [Reported by
Ad-Daraqutni. Ibn Khuzaima graded it Saheeh (sound) and others graded it Mawquf
(untraceable).]
Ibn Hajar, Al Hafidh, Abu Fadh was a sign in memorization and intelligence. He used to
establish his time with beneficial knowledge and righteous deeds, May Allah have Mercy
upon him.
Daraqutni is Abul Hassan ‘Alee ibn ‘Umar.
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Ibn Khuzaima is Muhammed ibn Ishaaq Aboo Ishaq.
The most correct opinion regarding this hadeeth is that it is Mawqoof (attributed to)
Ibn ‘Umar.
The Jumhoor’s opinion regarding the shafaq in the statement of the Prophet , “And
the time of Maghrib is so long as the shafaq does not disappear” is that it is referring to
the red shafaq; and this is correct. The Arabic language supports it. As for the statement
of Abu Hurayra, it is incorrect.
Ibn ‘Umar is Abdullah. ‘Umar had other children as well; however, it was said ibn ‘Umar
it means ‘Abdullah. Likewise if it is said Ibn Abbas, the one who is intended is ‘Abdullah,
because it became their proper name. Likewise if it is said ibnuz Zubair it means his son
Abdullah; and if it is said ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Aas it is referring to Abdullah and no else. Those
(the four mentioned) became their proper name. Ibn Malik said,
“Waqad yaseeru `alaman bil ghalabah
Mudhaafun aw mahsoobun kal `aqabah".
Those four are called ‘Abaadilah. The poet said: The son of ‘Abbas, ‘Amr, ‘Umar and
the son of Zubair are the best ‘Abaadilah.
It was said the son of Mas’ood is not included because he died long ago (before the four).
As for the aforementioned they lived much longer than him and the people were in need
of them.
Hadeeth #139
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas : Allah’s Messenger said, “Dawn is of two types; the dawn in
which eating is forbidden (for the fasting person) and prayer is permitted and the
dawn in which prayer is forbidden ie. The Morning Prayer and eating is permitted.
[Reported by Ibn Khusaima and Al Hakim who graded it Saheeh]
Al Hakim reported something similar to the above hadeeth from Jabir and added to the
type of dawn in which eating is forbidden: “it is spread widely in the horizon,” and to the
other type: “it has the shape of a wolf’s tail.”
This hadeeth is from the way of Aboo Ahmed Az Zubairi who said Suyaan narrated to us
from ibn Juraid from ‘Ataa’ from Ibn ‘Abbas.
Aboo Ahmad Az Zubairi made a mistake in tracing it to the Prophet .
Al Firyaabee and other than him from Ath Thawaree said it is Mawqoof. The
companions of ibn Juraib (who heard) from him said it is mawqoof as Imaam Ad
Daraqutni mentioned. Refer to At-Talkheesul Hadeer Vol.1 P.318.
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As for the hadeeth of Jabir ibn ‘Abdillah, Imaam Al Bayhaqee, May Allah have Mercy on
him, said it was narrated with correct chain and it was narrated Mursal (Sahabi missing
in the chain). He said the Mursal one is more authentic.
Al Hafidh in Talkheesul Hadeer Vol.1 P.317 said, “The Mursal that he had mentioned,
Aboo Da’ud recorded it in his Maraaseel. Ad-Daraqutni from the hadeeth of Muhammad
ibn Abdur-Rahman ibn Thawbaan that it reached him the Prophet said the hadeeth.
Both the hadeeth of ibn ‘Abbas and the hadeeth of Jabir are weak.
The hadeeth of ibn Mas’ood, in the two Saheeh and other than them, has a similar
meaning to this hadeeth. In it is a classification of Fajr into two categories.
1. Al-Fajr (dawn) that prohibits eating and drinking, and permits praying the
salaah; this is the true dawn.
2. The second kind of dawn is the one that prohibits the salaah and permits the
eating and the drinking; this is the false dawn.
In the second narration is a description of the true dawn and its signs “it is spread
widely in the horizon…”
The word مستطيلا means (mumtaddah) extended. The word الافق means النيهاية
(annahiyah).
This is the true dawn, if it appears it is prohibited for those who intend to fast to eat or
drink. Our Lord said:
وَآُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ
And eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from
the black thread (darkness of night)… (Al-Baqarah 2:187)
As for the characteristic of the false dawn, it’s clarified in this statement “…it has the
shape of a wolf’s tail.” What is meant here is that the light/brightness of the false dawn
extends vertically in the sky in the form that was mentioned in the hadeeth (wolf’s tail).
Hadeeth #140
Narrated ibn Mas’ud : Allah’s Messenger said, “One of the best deeds is to offer
salat (prayer) in its early time.” [Reported by At Tirmidhi and Al Hakim graded it
Saheeh. Its origin is in the Saheehain (Two Saheehs) of Al Bukharee and Muslim]
“…Its origin is in the Saheehain…”: meaning the hadeeth is in the two Saheehs without
the word “ اول ” (awal). The word awal which was mistakenly mentioned by ‘Alee ibn
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Hafs is dha’eef. There are other narration that say awal, however, none of them are
preserved. For more information refer to Fathul Bari vol.1 p.10.
Ibn Mas’ood is Abdillah ibn Mas’ood ibn Ghaseel.
We’ve already mentioned his virtues.
[*Previous notes from Sharh Arba’een An-Nawawee taught by Umm 'Abdillah]
Who is ibn Mas'ood?
1. He is one of the people the Messenger said to learn the Qu’ran from. Allah's
Messenger neither talked in an insulting manner nor did he ever speak evil
intentionally. He used to say; "The most beloved to me amongst you is the one
who has the best character and manners." He added, " Learn the Qur'an from
(any of these) four persons: 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, Salim the freed slave of Abu
Hudhaifa, Ubay bin Ka'b, and Mu'adh bin Jabal." [Saheeh Al Bukharee, Book of
the Companions of the Prophet, N0. 3503]
2. His leg will be heavier than Mount Uhud. Ali, May Allaah be pleased with him,
narrated, ‘The Prophet sent Ibn Mas’ood to fetch him something from the top
of a tree. When he had climbed the tree, [a wind blew and exposed his legs] the
companions of the Prophet looked at his legs and laughed at their thinness.
The Prophet said, “Why are you laughing? Verily, Abdullah's leg will be
heavier on the scale, on the day of resurrection, than Mount Uhud”
3. He was granted permission to enter upon the Prophet . The Prophet did not
screen himself from me (had never prevented me from entering upon him) since
I embraced Islam, and whenever he saw me, he would receive me with a smile.
[Saheeh Al Bukharee, Book of Good Manners, N0. 5696]
4. He [Abdullah ibn Mas’ud] was poor. Even with his death Allah raised his status
because of his hard work and taqwah.
Hadeeth #141
Narrated Abu Mahdhara : “The Prophet said, “The earliest time of prayer is what
pleases Allah, the midtime is for the blessing of Allah and the latest time is what Allah
allows as a concession.” [Reported by Ad-Daraqutni with a very weak Sanad] At
Tirmidhi has reported the same, narrated by Ibn ‘Umar, without mentioning about the
midtime. [It is Dha’eef too].
This hadeeth is dha’eef because it’s from the way of Ibrahim Zekaria and he is Mutaham
(accused).
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Shaykh Al-Albaani رحمه الله graded it, in his book Irwa Al Ghaleel, as fabricated. Refer to
Vol.1 P.290.
The second hadeeth is very dha’eef because it’s by the way of Ya’qoob ibn Waleed Al
Madani. He is a kadhab (liar). Shaykh Al Albaani رحمه الله graded it as fabricated in Irwa
Al Ghaleel vol.1 p.287.
There is a difference of opinion regarding Abu Mahdhara’s name. Imam Al Hafidh Ibn
Hajar, in his book Al ‘Eesaba Bi Tareekh As Sahaba, said his name is Uways; it was also
said that his name is Samoora, and other than that. From his virtues is that the Prophet
entrusted him with calling the Adhaan, and made him a mu’adheen in his masjid, and
he taught him how to announce the call to prayer. The Messenger had other
mu’adheen other than...
1. Abee Mahdhara,
2. like Bilaal ibn Rabaha,
3. Ibn Umm Makhtoom, and
4. Sa’d Al Quradh, he is ibn ‘A’eed or ibn Abdurahman;
Ibn Qayim recorded them in his book Zaadul Ma`aad.
.
“…the midtime is for the blessing of Allah…”: This statement is not mentioned in the
hadeeth of ibn ‘Umar. As for the issue mentioned by ibn Mas’ood and Abee Mahdhara
regarding the desirability of praying the salaah at its earliest time there are proofs that
indicate the desirability to compete in doing so.
وَسَارِعُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالأَرْضُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
And march forth in the way (which leads to) forgiveness from your Lord, and for
Paradise as wide as are the heavens and the earth, prepared for Al-Muttaqûn (the
pious - see V.2:2). (Aali Imran 3:133)
سَابِقُوا إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا آَعَرْضِ السَّمَاء وَالْأَرْضِ أُعِدَّتْ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا
بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاء وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ
Race one with another in hastening towards Forgiveness from your Lord (Allâh), and
towards Paradise, the width whereof is as the width of heaven and earth, prepared for
those who believe in Allâh and His Messengers. That is the Grace of Allâh, which He
bestows on whom He pleases. And Allâh is the Owner of Great Bounty. (Al-Hadid
57:21)
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وَلِكُلٍّ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا فَاسْتَبِقُواْ الْخَيْرَاتِ أَيْنَ مَا تَكُونُواْ يَأْتِ بِكُمُ اللّهُ جَمِيعًا إِنَّ اللّ ه
عَلَى آُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
For every nation there is a direction to which they face (in their prayers). So hasten
towards all that is good. Where so ever you may be, Allâh will bring you together (on
the Day of Resurrection). Truly, Allâh is Able to do all things. (Al-Baqarah 2:148)
These proofs include the salaah and other than it with the exception of the Ishaa’ prayer,
which the desirability is in delaying it. Similarly, is the Dhuhr prayer, its desirability is
in delaying it during the time of intense heat until the intensity of the heat decreases.
The ahadeeth have differed in the clarification of the best deed. Abdullah ibn Mas’ood
narrated: A man asked the Prophet "What deeds are the best?" The Prophet said: (1) To
perform the (daily compulsory) prayer at their (early) stated fixed times, (2) To be
good and dutiful to one's own parents. (3) And to participate in Jihad in Allah's
Cause." [Saheeh Al Bukharee, Book of Tawheed, N0.7052 and Saheeh Muslim, The
Book of Eeman, N0. 148]
At-Tirmidhi narrated it from Abee Dharr that Dhikr is the best of deeds. The Prophet
said: "Should I not inform you of the best of deeds, and the most sanctifying of deeds
before your Lord, which does more to raise your positions (with Him), and are better
for you than the disbursement of gold and money, or battle with the enemy?" They
(the companions) said: "Indeed. Inform us." He then said: "Remembrance of
Allah". (Saheeh ibn Maajah 2/316 and Saheeh at-Tirmidhi 3/139)
Imaam Ahmad narrated in his musnad from the hadeeth of Abee Umamah that the
Messenger said to him "You must fast! There is nothing like it." And likewise there
are other ahadeeth that show the best deed of all.
The reconciliation between the ahadeeth is that the answers of the Prophet vary on
the condition of the questioner. The Messenger used to speak to the Sahabah with
what will benefit each of them. For those whom fasting was suitable he would encourage
them to do so; those whom adhkar was suitable he would encourage them to do so, and
like in all the adillah he would encourage them according to their level and condition.
Refer to Sharh Muslim by Imaam An-Nawawee and Tuhfadhu Dhakireen by Ash-
Shawkanee.
Hadeeth #142
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar : Allah’s Messenger said, “There is no salaah (prayer) after the
break of dawn except two rak’a of Fajr." [Reported by Al Khamsa except An-Nasa’i].
In another version: ‘Abdur-Razzaq also narrated: "There is no Salat (prayer) after the
break of dawn except the two (Sunnah) Rak’a of Fajr.”
Commentary on Buloogh al-Maraam 􀂄 Dars by Umm ‘Abdillah al-Waadi’iyyah (Telelink) 􀂄 Rabee’ Al-Awaal 8, 1426 April 17, 2005
P
L
Toronto, Canada 􀂄 Philadelphia, USA 􀂄 Damaaj, Yemen
Page 9 of 9
The chain of the hadeeth of ibn Umar is dha’eef by way of Muhammad ibn Hussayn
because he is Majhoolul ‘ayn (unknown individual).
As for the hadeeth of Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Aas, in its chain is Abdur-Raheem ibn
Zeeyad Al Ifreek because he is dha’eef.
For the hadeeth of Abdullah, there are other narrations that support it from the
maraseel of Sa’eed ibn Musayyib who is one of the great Tabi’ee and his mursal is in Al
Bayhaqee Vol.2, p.366.
Al Bayhaqee said: the hadeeth of the Prophet “There is no salaah (prayer) after the
break of dawn except two rak’a of Fajr” is Hasan li Ghairihi (hasan due to support).
The hadeeth of Abdullah ibn ‘Amr becomes Hasan li Ghairihi. As for the hadeeth of ibn
‘Umar it is not used as proof because Muhammad ibn Hussayn is Majhoolul ‘ayn. The
Majhoolul ‘ayn cannot be used as proof; this is the correct opinion.
Benefits
• Prohibition of praying after the break of dawn, except for the two rak’a of Fajr.
• Sa’eed ibn Musayyib experienced an incident with a man regarding this issue. Al
Bayhaqee narrated in an authentic chain that he [Sa’eed ibn Musayyib] saw a
man praying after dawn making many ruku’ and sujood so he prevented the man
from doing so. He said, “Allah will punish you” the man replied, “Allah will
punish me for praying salaah”, Sa’eed replied, “He will not punish you for salaah
but He will punish you for opposing the Sunnah.”
Translated by
Umm 'Abdir-Rahmaan Hanim (Haalah) bint Yusuf
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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